Background, and Purpose and Scope of this Recruitment for Data Collector
As an archipelagic country, the rapid development of the coastal area enabled the influx of people seeking jobs and livelihood. This led to the emergence of coastal metropolitan areas. The rising sea level is an imminent risk throughout the coastal metropolitan areas, and it is worsened by climate change. Sustainable urban initiatives have been placed yet the devastating effects of COVID-19 put those initiatives on hold, especially in the Surabaya Metropolitan Area; Gresik, Bangkalan, Mojokerto, Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Lamongan, including Jombang, Tuban, and Bojonegoro (Gerbangkertosusila+) and Makassar Metropolitan Area; Makassar-Maros-Sungguminasa-Takalar; (Maminasata).
The cities are also hit by unpredicted cycles of coastal flooding and job losses caused by Covid-19, disproportionately impacting the urban poor and exacerbating existing socio-economic inequality. The urban poor living in risk-prone areas are frequently excluded from the development process and have limited access to basic infrastructure (including transportation) and jobs, making them more vulnerable to extreme climate-related events. Given the current scenario, World Resources Institute (WRI) Indonesia, Vital Strategies and Arup aim to assist these two cities in their post-covid recovery plans by developing a more sustainable mobility strategy.
The objective of the UKPACT (United Kingdom Partnering for Accelerating Climate Transitions) Future Cities project are to:
- Intensify engagement with officials from the city of Surabaya on a variety of topics such as:
- Alignment of UKPACT planned activities in 2022 – 2025 with the ongoing and future studies or technical assistance in Greater Surabaya
- Confirm study area for a pilot project in the concept design.
- Conduct the needs assessment in developing a platform to monitor carbon emission from transportation in East Java province.
- Discuss, dialog, and conduct data collection with communities on policies, regulations, and activities that are gender-responsive and inclusive in the provision of transportation infrastructure and services in Gerbangkertosusila and Maminasata
Based on the analysis of the challenges and opportunities mentioned above, the United Kingdom (UK) Government launched the UKPACT Sustainable Urban Mobility program in the following six major cities in Indonesia: Medan, Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Makassar, and Surabaya. The UK Government, represented by the British Embassy in Jakarta, and the Indonesian Ministry of Transportation signed an Implementation Agreement (IA) in July 2022 to address the need for sustainable development and poverty reduction by achieving safer, inclusive, and resilient low-carbon transportation. The project, planned for three years between 2022-2025, will work on the selected cities’ urban mobility design through providing technical assistance, increasing public awareness, and generating evidence through pilot project demonstrations.
Surabaya, the capital city of the East Java Province of Indonesia, is located in the coastal area, which makes it prone to impacts of global warming such as rise in sea levels, salt-water intrusion, and climate-related disasters like flooding and cyclone. Based on the Regional Medium Term Development Plan (Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Daerah ~ RPJMD) 2021-2026, geographically, Surabaya’s main land area is between 0-20 meters above sea level, while the coastal area is between 1-3 meters above sea level. Surabaya borders Java Sea and the Madura Strait in the north; Madura Strait in the east; Sidoarjo Regency in the south; and Gresik Regency in the west. The city’s total area of approximately 32.681 ha land-based area is divided into 31 sub-districts and 154 urban villages. This covers 65% of the total 52.000 ha, while the rest of it is ocean. The city’s strategic location in terms of being at the transportation node (land, sea, and air) nationally and internationallyand significant industrialization and urbanization, make Surabaya city the second most populous city in Indonesia. Even though the city’s economy experienced a slowdown as an impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, Surabaya has begun to recover. The city’s mayor-elect Eri Cahyadi, has expressed his commitment to advancing Surabaya’s economy, and an integrated public transportation system is one of his key mandates.
Mobility is a key to dynamic progress for a city. Mobility does not only refer to transportation infrastructure, but also issues around equitable access. Currently the population in Surabaya relies heavily on private vehicles whose fleet is constantly growing even though the city has several public transportation options such as buses, smaller feeders (or Mikrolet), and commuting trains. Previously there was also canal transportation which is now limited for tourism purposes. The existing public transport options do not serve all localities, and their frequency also poses challenges. (Figures by Nov 4th, 2022) . Further, public transportation options that are environmental-friendly and sustainable are very limited.
To address these issues, the Surabaya City Government plans on the construction of mass rapid transit (MRT) and light rail transit (LRT) in collaboration with the Sidoarjo Regency and Gresik Regency governments. As a city aligned with the global efforts to address climate change, the Surabaya City Government is planning environmentally sound and sustainable infrastructure development efforts. The development of an integrated public transportation system that not only aims to support economic growth, but also aims to reduce carbon emissions, enhance health, and address issues around road safety is an essential vision in Surabaya’s policy in 2024.
Makassar is a coastal city consisting of inhabited islands with high daily mobility to Makassar City. Apart from the island’s community, there are people who move from one place to another by crossing the Jeneberang River and the Tallo River. This is a condition that affects the diversity of transportation and mobility in the city of Makassar. The mode of sea crossing and river transportation in Makassar City has so far been managed privately using infrastructures and services that do not [necessarily] meet safety standards. To most of the island, the sea crossing only available once per day. Other than daily sea crossing and river mobility in the inner part of the city using public and private mode of transportation, the transportation activities increase during weekends on the mainland Makassar sides, for tourism purposes to Spermonde islands, which is served mainly from the Kayu Bangkoa jetty or other informal jetties in the Fort Rotterdam area.
Land public transportation facilities operating on the streets of Makassar City currently consist of online application-based transportation, both four-wheeled and two-wheeled vehicles, buses from the Ministry of Transportation’s “Teman Bus” program, a small number of pete-pete, microbus type of public passenger transportation. Pete-pete was the city main public transportation which is significantly decreasing in the last 5 years, and it makes Makassar, without the small numbers of these left over pete-pete, has no means of land public transportation.
The city extensions development, including the establishment of campuses in border areas or even in bordering districts, without any available public transportation facilities, should also be portrait as Makassar transportation situation. Within the city, transportation and mobility at the urban village level, marked by the alleys, are dominated by two-wheeled vehicles and bentors (three-wheeled transportation vehicle).
On the mainland, population growth and population density in Makassar City are not in synch with the growth of the transportation system and its network.
The vehicle population in Makassar currently exceeds the road capacity. The number of motorized vehicles in Makassar, 3 million units in 2022, dominated by two-wheels vehicles. On the other hand, the population of Makassar is 1,5 million. Which means ownership for motorized vehicles can be 2 to 3 vehicles for one person.
Traffic congestion is one of the biggest transportation and mobility problems in Makassar city. Management of land public transportation and mobility in the City of Makassar are not in sync with the implementation of central government policies through the provincial government. Regarding land transportation management in Makassar City, there is a traditional mobility corridor called the North-South Corridor; a corridor which has existed since the 18th century. As the city develops, new settlements that grow outside these traditional corridors develop more rapidly and are not integrated with the existing pace of policy planning and transportation development. In turn, transportation management then leaves some areas not properly serviced. There is no access to public transportation in [newly developed] housing clusters/complexes, even in time when the pete-pete still dominating the city roads.
The transportation sector contributes around 27% of national Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, of which around 90% is generated by the land transportation subsector. This reality urges innovation and action to decarbonize the land transportation sector to be carried out immediately as an effort to accelerate the achievement of GHG emission reduction targets and in the long term to support the fulfillment of Indonesia’s 2060 net zero emissions target.
WRI Indonesia, through the support of the UK-Partnership for Accelerating Climate Transition Indonesia program or the UK-PACT Future Cities Program, is encouraging mitigation measures in the land transportation subsector through collaboration with the Ministry of Transportation which prioritizes innovation for a sustainable mobility ecosystem. This is achieved by introducing a system for calculating and monitoring land transportation emissions in the form of an emissions inventory tool that has been formulated with the Ministry of Transportation and is a crucial step in major efforts to reduce emissions at the national level.
The system for calculating and monitoring land transportation emissions introduced by WRI Indonesia is a series of approaches for calculating emissions which includes identifying the type of emissions and their sources in a certain location and time using an accurate calculation methodology. This innovation is in line with and supports the achievement of Minister of Transportation Decree no. KM 8 of 2023 concerning Determination of Climate Change Mitigation Actions in the Transportation Sector to Achieve the National Contribution Target set through the Indonesia Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).
In March 2020, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) reported that the earth’s temperature in the last five years was the warmest recorded. The global average temperature in 2019 was 1.1 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. If left unchecked, the earth’s temperature will increase above 1.5 degrees Celsius in 2030 and the impact will threaten all living things.
Continuously increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions result in an increase in the earth’s temperature. According to the UNEP2 report in 2018, total global GHG emissions have increased approximately 2x since 1970. Emissions are caused by various activities, from burning fossil fuels to deforestation.
To tackle the climate crisis, the countries that gathered at COP21 in 2015 agreed to the Paris Agreement, one of which was a commitment to reduce GHG emissions as outlined in the NDC. In its NDC, Indonesia has committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 29 percent to 41 percent, but this commitment is only valid until 2030. To reduce temperature, rise below 1.5 degrees Celsius, Indonesia must update and launch a climate target that is more ambitious.
To reduce GHG emissions, Indonesia has taken various steps, one of which is a moratorium policy on forest clearing through Presidential Instruction No. 5 of 2019 concerning Termination of the Granting of New Permits and Improving Governance of Primary Natural Forests and Peatlands. The regulation is to save the existence of primary natural forests and peatlands and reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.
The term NDC or Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) is known to many people, especially after the Paris Agreement was agreed; in Indonesia, perhaps, after the Paris Agreement was ratified through Law Number 16 of 2016. However, the journey towards agreeing on the NDC started long before Paris Agreement. The decision for each State Party to prepare an NDC started from Decision 1/CP.19, which was one of the decisions of the State Parties at COP19 in Warsaw in 2013 regarding INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contribution).
Vital Strategies is a global health organization that believes every person should be protected by a strong public health system. We work with governments and civil society in 73 countries to design and implement evidence-based strategies that tackle their most pressing public health problems. Our goal is to see governments adopt promising interventions at a scale as rapidly as possible.
Our experts provide technical and professional guidance to partners and government agencies. We speak out, through press releases, publications, social media, and participation in convenings and conferences against the practices of tobacco and the sugary drinks industries. Vital Strategies does not accept gifts or funds from industries related to tobacco, sugary drinks, and alcoholic drinks. We actively seek to engage with stakeholders who share our values and seek to work with partners who endorse and encourage the highest ethical work practices and standards.
This document forms the basis of a request for a proposal by Vital Strategies to find a suitable consultant to conduct an “Emissions Inventory data collection from the land transportation sector and its impact on health” (hereafter referred to “The Assignment”). The Assignment is focused on the emission from land transportation and its impact on health in Surabaya City and in Makassar City
To conduct data collection on the impact of transportation policy on air quality and public health in Surabaya and Makassar as inputs to the emissions inventory work as well as health impacts from transportation and develop an emissions inventory as guided by the University of York (UoY) methodology.
More specifically, the consultancy has the following objectives:
- To collect secondary data in support of the UoY methodology in estimating emissions for both Surabaya and Makassar. The indicators are enumerated in Attachment A;
- To collect secondary data to support the work in estimating health impacts from transportation in Surabaya and Makassar. The indicators are enumerated in Attachment B; and
The implementing team will use the results of this data collection to contribute to the overall UKPACT Future Cities Project goal. The UKPACT project will use the result to achieve safer, inclusive, resilient, and more ambitious low carbon development pathways for all residents including GESI groups of Surabaya Greater Area and Makassar Greater Area.
Vital Strategies will use the findings:
- To support emission reduction in Indonesia to contribute to NDC 2030.
- To use the result of this finding and advocate the relation between air pollution to the impact on health.
Due Date. Proposals must be submitted in PDF format to Julia Yeck email@example.com and copy to [AULIA RAHMAN; firstname.lastname@example.org ] Proposals shall include answers to all RFP questions (Attachment A), and be emailed in PDF format, together with all relevant and any supporting documentation, with the subject “Emission Inventory data collection from the land transportation sector and its impact on health” in the subject line, by 5.00 PM EST on [February 19, 2024]