Term of Reference
Consultancy service for a study on Forest Fires Suppression as a High Potential Pathway of Natural Climate Solutions (NCS) to enhance Indonesia’s NDC ambition
Yayasan Konservasi Alam Nusantara (YKAN) is a non-profit organization established and registered under the laws of the Republic of Indonesia. It has a mission to protect the lands and waters on which all life depends. YKAN is an affiliate of The Nature Conservancy (TNC), a science-based organization and experienced in advancing conservation throughout the world since 1951. YKAN’s mission is “to conserve the land and waters on which all life depends.” To achieve this mission YKAN supports Indonesia’s efforts to tackle climate change and meet the nationally determined contribution (NDC) target.
The Paris Climate Agreement commits the international community to keeping global warming well below 2°C and to pursue efforts to limit warming to 1.5°C. Achieving this goal will require rapid and significant reductions in global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and an increase in the amount of carbon stored in natural systems, including forests, grasslands and wetlands. It is well understood that the land sector is a major driver of global warming, contributing around one-quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions annually. However, the potential of natural systems to help tackle climate change is often overlooked. A 2017 study led by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) found that, through a set of “natural climate solutions” (NCS), the land sector has the potential to deliver more than one-third of near term cost-effective global emission reductions to hold global warming below 2°C, while delivering a range of ecosystem services and associated Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The TNC-led analysis assessed the mitigation potential of 20 distinct NCS pathways (Figure 1). Examples of key NCS pathways include: avoided forest conversion, reforestation, natural forest management, nutrient management in agricultural soils, conservation agriculture, avoided peatland impacts, and coastal wetland restoration.
Figure 1. Climate mitigation potential of 20 natural pathways at global level
Under the Paris Climate Agreement, each Parties, including Indonesia, put forward their own NDC towards global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Limiting climate warming below the 2°C threshold requires increased mitigation efforts for Indonesia with its commitment to cut the national emissions to 29% with a potential to increase ambition to 41% with international support under business as usual in 2030. As stated on Indonesia’s first submission of NDC, this commitment plans to account mitigation strategies from the Agriculture and Forestry through: a) reducing deforestation, b) increased application of sustainable forest management principles, c) rehabilitation of 12 million hectares of degraded land and d) restoration of 2 million hectares of degraded peatland. As there are many other NCS pathways are not covered on Indonesia’s NDC strategy, the maximum viable mitigation potentials to reduce national emission target are remain unclear. Through this program, Yayasan Konservasi Alam Nusantara as an affiliate of TNC Global aims to mobilize a much stronger set of NCS initiatives as countries update and increase NDC ambition and help Indonesia to implement those commitments over the coming years.
Based on Indonesia’s NDC submission, the forestry sector (including peat fires) is expected to contribute 17.2% of the unconditional reduction of 29% by 2030. As we learned until in the end of this year, peat fires always be an annual environmental tragedy during dry seasons in El-Nino years which significantly contribute for transferring carbon emissions from soil into the atmosphere. Indonesia has officially declared no burning policy based on Law number 32 Year 2009 on Environmental Protection and Management. Yet, in fact that slash and burn agriculture is still practiced by small farmers and large corporation in recent years. The effects are worsening if fires are set in swampy landscapes rich in organic materials and then usually followed by drainage canals development to dry out excess water from peatlands for new agricultural lands. Learning from historical forest and land fires in Indonesia, mitigate actions associated with avoiding emissions from fires are clearly a promising opportunity of NCS pathway in Indonesia. This analysis is also expected to quantify avoiding fire emissions reductions obtainable for less than USD 10, 50, 100 and maximum price per ton CO2e.
- Quantify fire mitigation actions (including peat fires suppression) as potential of natural climate solutions (NCS) to avoid greenhouse gas emissions in Indonesia
- Analyze the most suitable scenarios of avoiding emissions from fire emissions, particularly on peatlands then estimate the reductions obtainable for less than USD 10, 50, 100 and maximum price per ton CO2e
- Analyze associated co-benefits generated from avoiding emissions from forest fires for ecosystem services including air, biodiversity, water, and soil.
- Identify uncertainty, challenges and barriers to achieve maximum fire mitigation pathway as NCS opportunities to enhance Indonesia’s commitment stated as NDC
- Present the result of this study on expert meetings and provide policy recommendation in regards of fire mitigation pathway for Indonesia’s NDC.
Deliverable 1: Inception report detailing the consultant understanding of the task and the methodology to be employed to complete the task
Deliverable 2: Final consultancy report on analysis maximum potential GHG emissions reduction from fire suppression pathway in mineral and peat ecosystems to unlock Indonesia’s NDC target. The report must cover at least all points stated as objectives above.
DURATION OF THE CONTRACT
The consultancy is expected to take 30 working days
REQUIRED EXPERTISE AND QUALIFICATION
- Advanced university degree (at least PhD) in the area forestry, natural resources, sustainable development and relevant field
- At least five years of professional work experience in project implementation and management in the area of climate change, in particular on forest fires issue
- Experienced and highly-qualified to produce a highly credible, well-written study report in the time period requested (Bahasa or English)
- Experience working with Indonesia government and international organization is an asset.
The analysis will be conducted through scientific literature review and interviews with key actors with government officials.
The consultants shall be paid the consultancy fee upon completion of the following milestones
30% after contract signing
30% after completion, submission and acceptance of inception report
40% after submission and acceptance of final consultancy report
TNC will provide transport to the field if the consultants have to travel outside Jakarta upon TNC’s approval and will facilitate different meetings like NCS expert meetings or workshops.
Qualified and interested candidates are hereby requested to apply (either as a team or individually). The application should contain the following:
- A technical proposal with brief description of why the individual considers him/herself as the most suitable for the assignment, and a detailed clear methodology, on how they will approach and complete the assignment
- The technical proposal should also contain personal CV indicating education background/professional qualifications, all past experience, as well as the contact details (email and telephone number) of the candidate. Budget details should be attached on this proposal
Interested parties should submit a written proposal in English or Bahasa Indonesia which includes the following elements:
- Detailed approach for the study
- Proposed cost on a fixed cost basis, including expenses (maximum one page).
- Relevant experience and qualifications of the organization/individual consultant